Unfortunately there isn’t any original painting of Vermeer in Delft. The most nearby paintings of Vermeer are in the Mauritshuis in The Hague. I think that two of his best painting are there. The Mauritshuis just reopened after a renovation. For me it has become the best museum in the Netherlands with 17th century Dutch and Flemish art.
It is a small museum but the quality of the paintings is very high. It is one of the top four collections of Dutch Golden Age paintings in the world. It houses about 200 paintings. Besides paintings of Vermeer, there is also good work from Rembrandt, Potter, Fabritius, Hals, Breughel.
Since it has been renovated, the entrance and café of the museum have become suitable for large numbers of visitors. The architect of this renovation is Hans Van Heeswijk architecten. They did a great job. I personally love the entrance with a lot of glass. The most special thing for me is the elevator. I remerber once we could not find it because it was in a corner, hidden behind a large door. Now it is in the middle of the museum and its roof is covered with the same marble as the floor, so if the elevator is at a level below you only see a glass cage. You should see this!
But more important, there are 5 paintings of Vermeer in the Mauritshuis, of course his two most famous ones: View of Delft and The girl with a pearl earring.
Although The Mauritshuis is not in Delft, I do recommend to visit this museum. You cannot miss these Vermeers if you have been in Delft and walked through ‘his’ city.
Mauritshuis / Plein 29 / The Hague